[PDF] 150 Must Know Facts About India

150 Must-Know Facts About India

Below is the List of Facts About India:

1. India is the seventh-largest country in the world in terms of area.

2. Indian mainland extends between latitudes 8 degrees 4' and 37 degrees 6' north, longitudes 68 degree 7' and 97 degrees 25' east and measures about 3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes.

3. India has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman and the Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.

4. Countries having common border with India are Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Bhutan, Nepal, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

5. Aravalli, Vindhya, Satpura, Maikala and Ajanta are prominent hill ranges that lie between the Peninsular India and the plains of Ganga.


6. The Eastern and Western Ghats meet at the southern part of the Indian Peninsula which is formed by the Nilgiri Hills. .

7. Ghagra, Gomti, Gandak, Kosi and Yamuna are the major Himalayan rivers that join the Ganga. Chambal, Betwa and Sone are major rivers flowing north from central India that join Yamuna/Ganga.

8. After Ganga, Godavari has the second-largest basin covering 10 per cent of the area of India. Next to it is Krishna, followed by the Mahanadi basin.

9. The climate of India can be described as tropical monsoon type.

10. India is in tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity.

11. Botanical Survey of India, (BSI), Kolkata is the nodal agency that is studying the flora of the country. BSI brings out an inventory of the endangered plants in the form of a publication titled "Red Data Book".

12. The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), Kolkata and its 16 regional stations are responsible for surveying the faunal resources of India.

13. India has a great variety of fauna, numbering 89,451 species.

14. The design of the National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on July 22,1947.

15. The State emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capitol of Ashoka. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capitol is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dizaram Chakra). There are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion, separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus.

16. In the State emblem, adopted on January 26,1950, only three lions are visible. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The words, Satyameva Jayate, from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning 'truth alone triumphs', are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagiri script.

17. The song Jana-gana-mana, composed by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly, as the National Anthem of India, on January 24, 1950. It was first sung on December 27, 1911, at the Calcutta session of Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza contains the full version of the National Anthem.

18. The national calendar of India is based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month. A normal year of 365 days was adopted from March 22, 1957, along with the Gregorian Calendar for the following purposes: (1) Gazette of India; (2) news broadcast by All India Radio; (3) calendars issued by Government of India; and (4) Government communications addressed to the members of the public.

19. Agriculture sector of India contributes 25 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and about 70 per cent of the population is dependent on it.

20. There are three main crop seasons in India, namely, Kharif, rabi and summer.

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